Human capital also includes health of an individual, household and community. Access to town also means access to non-farm activities and skills that can be of benefit to a household . The sustainable livelihood approach offers a holistic and integrative approach with the capacity to analyse and understand the complexity of rural development (Chambers and Conway 1991; Solesbury 2003). To learn more, view our, The Impact of Microfinance on Household Livelihoods: Evidence from Rural Eritrea, Effective livelihood adaptation to climate change disturbance: Scale dimensions of practice in Mozambique, Household Livelihood Strategies in Mano Menima, Kailahun District, The Development of the Rural Non-farm Economy in Developing Countries and Transition Economies: Key Emerging and Conceptual Issues. Lack of employment and/or loss of livelihood, the impact of HIV/AIDS and other chronic illnesses on a household and lack of income have rendered both men and women vulnerable to poverty. Diversification can also refer to attempts undertaken by an individual or a household to find new ways of survival to raise income and endure shocks such as disasters and disease outbreaks (Khatun and Roy 2012). 2008; Moll 2005; Quirós and Gonzalez-Vega 2007; Yadav 2014). This is because with more resources one is able to afford an education or training which can complement or augment their skills thereby widening their livelihood capabilities, which is not the case for those without resources. Over 10 million scientific documents at your fingertips. Size of Family: a big family needs more resources for sustenance than a small family. Assets: Availability of assets in a household increases the chances of investing into new markets and or activities that will enhance the economy of the household. It This cross-border travel is also another route of spreading infectious diseases . J Dev Stud 35(1):1–38. Bull World Health Organ 87(11):824–832. 2006). Therefore, lack of land directly affects the development for rural households and pushes populations to diversifying into other activities and livelihoods that will not require acquisition and/or ownership of land (http://web.undp.org/drylands/docs/Governance.pdf). The SL approach based on this framework supports poverty eradication by making enhancement of poor people’s livelihoods a central goal of development efforts. However, ability to raise collateral and to pay back the loan is critical in fuelling diversification; otherwise poverty levels have increased with resultant loss of assets for non-payment of loans. Depending on the location of an individual or a household , they can be faced with assorted constraints and challenges . Consumption of exotic foods; in rural areas , consumption of exotic foods such as bush meat is a common practice. Ellis F (1998) Household strategies and rural livelihood diversification. In order for a rural population to strive there is need for livelihoods that would sustain and support their households and communities. Naturally, communities acquire their livelihood by what surrounds them. Social networks are considered as horizontal associations between individuals, which increase productivity by reducing the costs of doing business and facilitate coordination and cooperation. The framework is an analytical device for improved understanding of livelihoods and poverty. J Sustain Agric 34(4):417–438. Lack of Road Network and Transport Facilities. Summary Rural livelihoods are in crisis throughout much of the developing world, but understanding of that crisis rarely transcends simple conceptions of food or environmental crisis. Int J Bus Manag 8(19):99–106. This book addresses the question in more depth. Microfinance has brought financial security, social security and improved lives for many in developing countries. Access to credit and ability to borrow: Access to credit and ability to obtain loans allows for diversification . Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness 4(1):30–38. Apart from these, people also lose their homes; communities are left with nothing and struggle to recover from the disaster. Therefore education is a necessary investment for human capital. It is very difficult in the time allotted to give an overview on all of the work that has taken place on sustainable livelihood approaches over the … The five assets in sustainable livelihood are human capital , physical capital, social capital, financial capital and natural capital. 2008; Odi et al. 2003; Nasir 2013; Swope 2007). These diseases play a role in livelihood sustainability as well as diversification . Rural livelihoods as a source of income. wild/bush meat, raw sea food and raw vegetables. The determinants and effects of diversification in the areas of poverty, income distribution, farm output and gender are examined. Financial capital refers to any liquid medium or mechanism that represents wealth such as money, purchasable items, savings, credit , etc. The outcomes showed that it is possible to achieve broader health benefits when there is partnership between health, economic and social sectors when implementing interventions (Kim et al. Owing to low human capital, the rural poor tend to diversify in less profitable labour markets than their wealthier counterparts. Those who are not able to repay loans have lost their property to the credit organizations to which they owed money. Climatic change which has affected arthropods; Pathogens acquiring new virulence traits. Micro-irrigation pump, seeds and fertilizer. Lack of infrastructure for education also denies communities the basic education that is needed in order to obtain further skills . These challenges can determine whether and how this individual or household will diversify. Zoonotic diseases that can be passed on through water contaminated by rodent and livestock urine such as Leptospirosis can also be a major threat to the communities that have survived a natural disaster such as flooding. This service is more advanced with JavaScript available, Infectious Diseases and Rural Livelihood in Developing Countries Human behaviour has resulted in a range of environmental and ecological changes, some of which have influenced emergence and re-emergence of infectious diseases . Is it possible to create saving and credit cooperatives that can support health research and health service delivery in developing countries? This also means that these people are very likely to be exposed to different disease causing agents that are found in their surroundings. Most developing countries suffer shortages of well trained-health personnel which have contributed to the underperformance of health systems and primary health care. This paper uses the sustainable livelihoods approach to take a fresh look at the impact of the Watershed Development Programmes (WSD) on rural livelihoods. ID 2522735). Rollins Undergraduate Res J 2(1):9. In Afghanistan, BRAC managed to set up development programmes in health, education, agriculture, community development and provided microfinance services by providing loans to small businesses. 2015). Diversity recognizes that people manage by doing many different things rather … Buckley G (1997) Microfinance in Africa: is it either the problem or the solution? Social capital refers to relationships, institutions and norms that shape societal interactions. Increase in the dependency ratio puts more pressure on the household and decreases the ability of the household to meet their needs. Rural livelihood is a complex structure comprising of mostly agriculture, with part of the population diversifying into non-farm activities in order to attain a sustainable livelihood to get better income for their households. alteration of livestock management practices. Since microfinance has mostly been associated with financial support, most communities are willing to participate in social groups that provide these services. 2010; Khatun and Roy 2012); Unintended birth into a predisposed livelihood ; a designated system which defines an individual’s livelihood, e.g. Dependency ratio measures the population of dependants (people younger than 15 and those older than 64) against the productive population (ages 15–64). The lack of necessary infrastructure deters development of new activities and markets in such regions. Their analysis can be seen to highlight, as one of the weaknesses of the SL approaches, the risk of over-reliance on the SL framework, which leads to a failure to overtly address Apart from economic empowerment for small-scale entrepreneurs can microfinance be beneficial in health research? What influences emergence and re-emergence of diseases? Agriculture labourers are those people in rural areas who work as labour in fields and get daily wages. After a natural disaster people move to camps or other areas of safety, which in most occasions are very crowded. Spontaneous livelihoods; that are taken up due to desperate situations where what an individual does is in principle determined by social economic and ecological situation. In rural populations where their livelihood is dependent on land and other natural resources , a natural disaster deprives these communities of their human capital. This paper outlines a framework for analysing sustainable livelihoods, defined here in relation to five key indicators. Lack of assets such as money, land , and houses that can be used as collateral to get loans, or sold in order for a household to get extra income, can affect the extent of diversification . Rural livelihood poses a great challenge as these populations are often in a state of poverty where they lack the basic necessities for survival . Kollmann TR, Bortolussi R, MacDonald NE (2015) MicroResearch—finding sustainable solutions to local health challenges in East Africa. This book sets out the rural livelihoods approach within the larger context of past and current themes in rural development. The 'livelihoods' approach (sometimes also known as the sustainable livelihoods or SL approach) is now widely used in analysing and addressing poverty in developing countries. A poor asset base limits a household’s ability to diversify and/or acquire loans or credit. It invites them to look at contexts and relationships so that development activities can become more process-oriented. A household or community that is further from town has poor access to these facilities and has less chance of diversifying. broiler-farming-an-approach-to-improve-rural-livelihood 1/2 Downloaded from www.gettinguxdone.com on January 20, 2021 by guest Kindle File Format Broiler Farming An Approach To Improve Rural Livelihood When people should go to the books stores, search opening by shop, shelf by shelf, it is in reality problematic. This is further complicated by diseases that emerge after the natural disaster. Sorry, preview is currently unavailable. International cross-border travel; there has been an increase in international cross-border travel for work, leisure and/or study. Gains and outputs—These are the resources derived from what they do that allows them to earn a living. Enter the email address you signed up with and we'll email you a reset link. Natural disasters contribute to emergence and re-emergence of infectious diseases. J Int AIDS Soc 15(3(Suppl 1)). Not logged in Moll HA (2005) Microfinance and rural development: a long-term perspective. World Dev 38(1):48–63. Spread of other infectious diseases such as HIV and the risk of disease outbreaks such as measles, chicken pox and scabies are also common. Nasir S (2013) Microfinance in India: contemporary issues and challenges. Re-emergence of polio in countries surrounding Afghanistan , Pakistan and parts of Nigeria and surrounding countries is an example of this. Young people are more energetic than older folks; hence the types of livelihoods that can be acquired by these two age groups will be different. Education exposes an individual to new dimensions including reading and writing that are required to improve and attain skills . Age: Children for example will end up following their parents’ livelihoods; but as they grow older and gain more skills they have a better chance of diversifying into other livelihoods. Yadav RK (2014) Significance of microfinance institutions in rural development of India. Any change in their living conditions and/or their surroundings could result in elimination of a certain disease and/or introduction of another. The SARS outbreak originated from China, spread through Hong Kong and other parts of Asia , to Europe and America . MacDonald N, Kabakyenga J (2008) Microresearch: borrowing from the microfinance experience. For a household to attain education and skills, they need to be in a good state of health. Ellis F (1996) Rural livelihood diversity in developing countries: evidence and policy implications, (40). These labourers do not own land of their own, thus are forced to work in the lands of richer farmers. Poor sanitation is a good source of infectious diseases such as malaria , dengue, leishmaniasis, cysticercosis (tapeworm), cholera and other diarrheal diseases that can easily spread in densely populated areas with poor sanitation. Associations and ties within a community are needed to give a sense of identity and purpose to these communities. There are several factors that affect emergence and re-emergence of diseases, these include: Barbier EB, Hochard JP (2014) Poverty and the spatial distribution of rural population (SSRN Scholarly Paper No. 2013; Sharma 2001). These bring serious threats to livelihoods with the rural poor being the most affected. Weather patterns that affected agricultural productivity; A challenging partnership with microfinance institutions; BRAC in Afghanistan — A collaboration between developing countries (Chowdhury et al. It focuses on the livelihoods of poor people, the complexity of those livelihoods, and the associated opportunities and constraints. Since members decide on the conditions of repayment, the conditions are manageable. People surrounded by water have their livelihoods around the water; this includes farming and fishing. Services M, Health P, Macro ICF (2010) Kenya service provision assessment survey 2010 [SPA17]. Part of Springer Nature. Since the groups are comprised of individuals who know each other, there is a sense of belonging as well as a sense of ownership as each member has invested the same amount of money and is part of the decision-making process. The Sustainable Rural Livelihood Approach was considered to be the most promising of the various options. Credit can allow for exploiting new ideas while maintaining the current income base. Figure 2.9 – The Sustainable Livelihood model in the DFID Guidelines (DFID 1999, figure 1, p.1) Figure 2.10 – The dynamic nature of assets in a modern development economics scenario (Sayer and Campbell 2001, figure 10, p.218) But how does this contribute to emergence or re-emergence of infectious diseases ? Vulnerability reduction; 2. Training schemes that can instill skills in disciplines such as sustainable agriculture, and how communities can use the available resources sustainably at the same time improving their livelihoods, could also be of greater benefit to the rural poor. The framework shows how, in different contexts, sustainable livelihoods are achieved through access to a range of livelihood resources (natural, economic, human and social capitals) which are combined in the pursuit of different livelihood strategies (agricultural … Microfinance is therefore not only a source of income, but one way to develop a community to attain sustainable livelihoods. Increase in population; this means with increase in food demands, there is more pressure to produce enough food and enough income to sustain growing families. Leptospirosis is a bacterial disease that affects humans and is passed on from animals to humans through contact with urine from infected livestock and rodents. (PDF) Sustainable Rural Livelihoods: A Framework for Analysis The Sustainable Livelihood framework approach is a comprehensive method for determination of food insecurity and poverty at household level. This small-scale market boom has also resulted in the rise of theft for those who want to make quick money. A household can be defined as human groups which share the same roof and resources. Int J Tuberc Lung Dis 15(6):37–49. The Rural Livelihood System (RLS) approach is the outcome of several years of research collaboration between Indian and Swiss researchers.1 It was originally developed to enable a better understanding of people’s perception of the meaning of sustainable natural resource For the successful ones, members of the groups are able to finance their businesses, support their households and are able to diversify their livelihoods because they have a financial security through the cooperative (Gibbs et al. Being able to read and write allows an individual to access information in books, posters and any other literature that could be useful in developing their talent and learning new skills. The reliance on agriculture though tends to decrease when household income levels rise, as observed in sub-Saharan Africa . The natural disaster may cause changes in the environment which can end up introducing vectors in new areas resulting in emergence of the vector-borne diseases in new areas and potential outbreaks. SpringerPlus 4(1):122. The SL framework is applicable to both rural and urban survival strategies. People need the land for agriculture , to build homes and as a base for their small-scale businesses and non-farm activities . Social capital plays a major role in productivity of an individual, organization and community (Ellis 2000 ) . There is then a high risk of transmission of infectious diseases including measles, meningitis , cholera, malaria and other acute respiratory diseases . These communities tend to develop habits that later on become the norm for that community from what surrounds them. J Microfinance/ESR Rev 7(2):13–31. It helps formulate development activities that are. 87.106.69.81, A Livelihood can be defined as the activities, the assets and the access that jointly determine the living gained by an individual or household (Ellis. Due to variations in ability to access the basic necessities, there are people who are rich, able to acquire all their basic necessities without difficulty and those that are poor, and lack one or more of the their basic necessities. Instead of improving their livelihoods, to some microfinance has plunged them into utter poverty. As a result the poor make very little income, which results in failure to create opportunities that could earn them more money, and they are denied opportunities to improve their status—an example of low human capital (Ellis 1996). This paper presents a critical, academic review of the Sustainable Rural Livelihoods (SRL) approach to development, beginning with a presentation of the central SRL tenets and their origins, and proceeding to a discussion of the strengths and weaknesses of the academic literature, particularly in relation to theoretical consistency. In 2002 BRAC, a Bangladesh-based NGO whose main focus is setting up development programmes, especially in the rural areas and targeting the most vulnerable populations, went into Afghanistan to assist the country with its development programmes. The sustainable livelihoods approach encourages thinking out of the box. The focus of BRAC has been on human development through adult literacy, vocational training, public health and improvement of livelihoods. Availability of Land: apart from human capital , availability of land is also fundamental in rural livelihoods (Barbier and Hochard 2014 ) . Education and migration; where qualifications determine which field of work an individual can exploit . Those with wealth have a wider choice of a livelihood than those without. The livelihood concept offers a more complete picture of the complexities of making a living in rural areas of low income countries than terms formerly considered adequate, such as subsistence, incomes, or employment. With poor surveillance in most developing countries, it is very difficult to track disease occurrence. By using our site, you agree to our collection of information through the use of cookies. Shamba — Maisha; Agricultural intervention and HIV health outcomes (Cohen et al. The objective of this study was to determine the livelihood strategies and the coping mechanisms used by rural households in Abela Lida PA, Shebedino district, Southern Ethiopia. By creating social groups and networks within the community, people have been able to start up credit cooperatives where each member can invest a certain amount of money, and thereafter the members are able to borrow the money for their own use. Middle-East J Sci Res 15(2):191–199. Livelihoods have been affected by shocks such as natural disasters and disease outbreaks which have led to partial and/or complete loss of livelihoods. Owing to displacement and/or damage of water sources, people who have survived a natural disaster tend to drink water from unsafe sources. consumption of exotic foods , e.g. You can download the paper by clicking the button above. Due to the crowding, the displaced communities are at high risk of contraction of these diseases. The sustainable livelihoods approach improves understanding of the livelihoods of the poor. There is need for human, social, economic, financial, physical and natural capital for livelihoods to be sustainable. Combining microfinance and health campaigns could assist in disseminating the needed information regarding health issues, including disease prevention and control. In a household dependency ratio measures the ability of the household to sustain and meet their needs. Some of the challenges that have affected rural livelihoods include natural disasters and disease outbreaks . , most communities are at high risk of contracting infectious diseases to introduction of diseases that have affected livelihoods! Income resulting in loss of lives, property and livelihoods that emerge the... To different animals and new pathogens often heavily reliant on the household to meet their needs communities... Disease prevention and control disease occurrence the livelihoods of rural populations include securing water food! ):824–832 and ability to obtain further skills and market opportunities that have resulted in good! 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Economic empowerment for small-scale entrepreneurs can microfinance be beneficial for their skill development and market.. A better life, this migration determines the choice of livelihoods leisure and/or study lack the basic for... Organizations to which they owed money, vocational training, public health and improvement of livelihoods disconcerting.... Leatherman s ( 2015 ) MicroResearch—finding sustainable solutions to local health challenges East... Lives for many in developing countries rural livelihood approach them diversity in developing countries where is! Survey 2010 [ SPA17 ] environments and will likely be exposed to different causing! Health, poverty and livelihoods is critical when analysing the importance of policies and.. ) microfinance investments in quality at private clinics in Uganda, Kenya, Nigeria, and later!, property and livelihoods is critical when analysing the importance of microfinance on rural in... They try to exploit the new opportunities in farm and non-farm activities markets. Sources of income resulting in loss of lives, property and livelihoods is critical when analysing the importance of on! Human behaviour has resulted in development of new markets encourages communities to diversify practitioners from conventional approaches that are in. Icf ( 2010 ) Kenya service provision assessment survey 2010 [ SPA17 ] an... Tr, Bortolussi R, MacDonald NE ( 2015 ) MicroResearch—finding sustainable solutions to local health challenges East... Allows an individual can exploit into as many ways as possible to create saving and credit cooperatives that be... Occasions are very likely to be in a good state of poverty where they rural livelihood approach. Such activities could include securing water, food, fodder, medicine, shelter, clothing and primary care. Example of micro credit and funding ( microfinance ) for community projects which is a common practice work labour... Upgrade your browser served the health needs in their communities ; Agricultural intervention HIV! Meaning that they are transferred from animals to the underperformance of health systems and primary care! C, Infantado C ( 2007 ) microfinance and rural livelihood in developing countries aspects... Damage of water sources, people also lose their crop, livestock and source of income resulting loss... And market opportunities spreading infectious diseases and rural livelihood in developing countries where is! Their small-scale businesses and non-farm activities are some of the natural disasters and disease.. Further livelihoods reviewsRural livelihoods and diversity have become popular topics in development projects with steady... Comprise two- fifths of the poor and vulnerable women faced with assorted and...